Clinical Research

Intense clinical research has been performed on DMAA and dietary supplements that contain DMAA.

All current available clinical data on DMAA is available below, including links to the full-text research papers, conducted by independent experts and published in respected journals:

Study #1: OxyElite Pro® Acute Study 1
Study #2: OxyElite Pro® 8 Week Safety & Efficacy Study 2
Study #3: Jack3d™ Two-Week Safety Study 3
Study #4: OxyElite Pro® Two-Week Safety Study 4
Study #5: Jack3d Ten-Week Safety Study 5
Study #6: DMAA / Caffeine 6
Study #7: DMAA/Caffeine 7

Study #1: OxyElite Pro® Acute Study 1

Authors: Cameron McCarthy MS, Tyler M. Farney MS, Robert Canale MS, Rick J. Alleman Jr. BS and Richard J. Bloomer PhD
Affiliation: Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis TN.

In a randomized, double-blind, trial with crossover, OxyElite Pro at a dose of two capsules, was shown to increase markers of lipolysis (fat breakdown) and energy expenditure (metabolic rate) over 120 minutes, in a group of six healthy men and six healthy women, all of whom were exercise-trained individuals.

Specifically, for the markers of lipolysis, glycerol’s area under the curve (AUC) values were obtained to look at the total change over the entire 120 minute period. This found that men’s average plasma glycerol levels were 31.47% higher when taking OxyElite Pro versus placebo, which was statistically significant. Women’s average plasma glycerol levels were 30.18% higher than those obtained when taking a placebo, which was statistically significant. Regarding free fatty acids (FFA), another marker of lipolysis, the average value for men taking OxyElite Pro was 169.23% greater than taking placebo which was statistically significant. For women, the average FFA value was 60.64% higher taking OxyElite Pro versus placebo which was statistically significant. For metabolic rate, the average value for men was 12.06% higher taking OxyElite Pro versus placebo which was statistically significant. For women, average metabolic rate was 35.64% higher taking OxyElite Pro versus placebo which was statistically significant. No serious adverse events were recorded. Some of these subjects who consumed two capsules, experienced noticeable stimulation.

These data show that by increasing lipolysis and metabolic rate, the DMAA-containing OxyElite Pro may allow for reduced fat mass and weight loss.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we report that the product OxyELITE Pro™ ingested at a dosage of two capsules by young and healthy men and women, resulted in an increase in plasma glycerol and FFA, in addition to metabolic rate. These results are apparent along with an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. These latter findings (increased systolic blood pressure in particular) may warrant caution, in particular in those with pre-hypertension or hypertension. The use of a lower dosage may attenuate this response. While this study only provides acute data pertaining to the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of this supplement, well controlled intervention trials are needed in order to determine the chronic effects of the supplement on body weight/fat loss and associated metabolic and biochemical markers of health, in particular within a sample of overweight or obese subjects.

http://www.la-press.com/a-finished-dietary-supplement-stimulates-lipolysis-and-metabolic-rate–article-a2945

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Study #2: OxyElite Pro® 8 Week Safety & Efficacy Study 2

Authors: Cameron McCarthy MS, Robert Canale MS, Rick Alleman Jr BS, Jacob Reed BA, Richard Bloomer PhD
Affiliation: Department of Health and Sports Science. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
Date: Jan 2012

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, OxyElite Pro, used in accordance with the labeled directions for use and warnings, was studied to see if it could improve body composition in healthy men and women over an eight-week period of use. A group of 32 exercise-trained men and women participated in the study. When utilizing a paired t-test, comparing baseline values with those after eight weeks of use, subjects in the OxyElite Pro group were found to have decreased body weight, BMI, waist size, waist to hip ratio, total body fat percentage, fat mass, and appetite, all of which was statistically significant. Those taking the placebo experienced no statistically significant change in any of these variables.

Safety of the DMAA-containing product was also assessed via hemodynamic and metabolic variables. While OxyElite did increase heart rate by an average of six beats per minute (comparable to the effect seen in some studies after the administration of caffeine dosages equivalent to 2 or 3 cups of coffee as reported in the scientific literature), no statistically significant changes in blood pressure were noted when comparing the values seen at baseline to those after eight weeks of use. Liver and kidney function were not affected as shown by various blood borne markers. The supplement was well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were noted. Some of these subjects who consumed two capsules, experienced noticeable stimulation.

In looking at the product’s efficacy, the subjects average weight loss over 8 weeks of OxyElite Pro use was approximately 4.18 lb, a statistically significant change from baseline. The placebo group, meanwhile lost 1.32 lb over 8 weeks and this was not statistically significant. Waist size in the OxyElite Pro group decreased by an average of 2.6 cm or about 1.02 inches, a statistically significant change from baseline. The placebo group, however, lost 0.7 cm or about .28 inches, a non-statistically significant change. Hip size did not change in either the OxyElite Pro or placebo group. However, because of this, it was noted that the waist:hip ratio declined by average of 2.47% in those taking OxyElite Pro, which was statistically significant compared to baseline. In those taking placebo, an average decline of 1.25% occurred, which was not statistically significant. Total body fat in the OxyElite Pro group decreased by an average of one full percentage point, a statistically significance change from baseline. The placebo group, however, experienced a decrease in total body fat percentage of 0.1, which was not statistically significant. Total fat mass decreased by an average of approximately 2.64 lb in the OxyElite Pro group, a statistically significant change from baseline. The placebo group, however, lost 0.44 lb, which was not statistically significant.

When subjects were asked to rate their appetite on a scale of 1-10 from baseline until week eight of the study, they reported an average decrease in appetite scores of approximately 24% after using OxyElite Pro, a statistically significant change. However, those taking placebo experienced a 5% reduction in appetite, which was not statistically significant.

Overall, this eight-week study corroborated what the previous acute study showed, which is that by increasing lipolysis and metabolic rate, OxyElite Pro is able to reduce fat mass in healthy men and women.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may aid in weight and body fat loss in young, exercise-trained men and women. While the supplement does not adversely affect bloodborne markers of safety or increase resting blood pressure significantly, it does elevate resting heart rate. As the majority of subjects in this investigation were not obese, it is possible that supplementation with this agent could provide more robust effects in those with higher body weight and fat mass. Additional investigation is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

http://www.la-press.com/biochemical-and-anthropometric-effects-of-a-weight-loss-dietary-supple-article-a2946

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Study #3: Jack3d™ Two-Week Safety Study 3

Authors: Tyler Farney MS, Cameron McCarthy MS, Robert Canale MS, Rick Alleman Jr BS, Richard Bloomer PhD
Affiliation: Department of Health and Sports Science. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
Date: Jan 2012

In an open-label, single-arm trial consisting of seven healthy men, each was instructed to consume the DMAA-containing Jack3d, in accordance with the labeled directions for use and warnings, each day for two weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, blood pressure, heart rate, and various indicators of renal and liver function were assessed. The study found that there were no statistically significant changes from baseline to the end of the study. Jack3d, which contains DMAA, was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were noted.

The hemodynamic response to acute ingestion was assessed as well for this DMAA product. Although small and transient changes in blood pressure were noted, these changes were not statistically significant and were consistent with changes reported in the scientific literature after consumption of the equivalent of 2-3 cups of coffee.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we report that the finished products OxyELITE Pro™ and Jack3d™, both of which contain a combination of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine, do not elevate resting HR, SBP, DBP, or RPP when ingested daily for 14 days. Moreover, no significant changes were noted in any measured bloodborne variable following 14 days of ingestion, with the exception of blood glucose with ingestion of Jack3d™. Acute ingestion of these products results in an increase in SBP, while leading to a statistically insignificant increase in DBP and RPP. Considering that these data were generated using two servings of the supplements, it is likely that a single serving would have resulted in a lesser change. Additional acute studies are needed to replicate our findings. In addition, intervention studies involving a larger subject sample monitored over an extended period of time are needed to more fully elucidate the effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine on hemodynamic and hematologic variables.

http://www.la-press.com/hemodynamic-and-hematologic-profile-of-healthy-adults-ingesting-dietar-article-a2947

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Study #4: OxyElite Pro® Two-Week Safety Study 4

Authors: Tyler Farney MS, Cameron McCarthy MS, Robert Canale MS, Rick Alleman Jr BS, Richard Bloomer PhD
Affiliation: Department of Health and Sports Science. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
Date: Jan 2012

In an open-label, single-arm trial consisting of four men and two women, subjects were instructed to consume OxyElite Pro, in accordance with the labeled directions for use and warnings, each day for two weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, blood pressure, heart rate and various indicators of renal and liver function were assessed. The study found that there were no statistically significant changes from baseline to the end of the study. No serious adverse events were noted.

The hemodynamic response to acute ingestion was assessed as well. OxyElite Pro did not result in a statistically significant change in heart rate or diastolic pressure, but did cause a statistically significant change in systolic blood pressure from baseline. This increase was mild and transient, and was similar to the changes reported in the scientific literature for subjects ingesting an amount of caffeine equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we report that the finished products OxyELITE Pro™ and Jack3d™, both of which contain a combination of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine, do not elevate resting HR, SBP, DBP, or RPP when ingested daily for 14 days. Moreover, no significant changes were noted in any measured bloodborne variable following 14 days of ingestion, with the exception of blood glucose with ingestion of Jack3d™. Acute ingestion of these products results in an increase in SBP, while leading to a statistically insignificant increase in DBP and RPP. Considering that these data were generated using two servings of the supplements, it is likely that a single serving would have resulted in a lesser change. Additional acute studies are needed to replicate our findings. In addition, intervention studies involving a larger subject sample monitored over an extended period of time are needed to more fully elucidate the effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine on hemodynamic and hematologic variables.

http://www.la-press.com/hemodynamic-and-hematologic-profile-of-healthy-adults-ingesting-dietar-article-a2947

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Study #5: Jack3d Ten-Week Safety Study 5

Authors: Richard Bloomer PhD, Brian Schilling PhD, Paul Whitehead MS, Tyler Farney MS.
Affiliation: Department of Health and Sports Science. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
Date: Feb 2012

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisting of 25 healthy, exercise-trained men, subjects consumed Jack3d™ in accordance with the labeled directions for use and warnings or a placebo for ten weeks. When comparing baseline values with those after 10 weeks of consumption, no statistically significant change in heart rate, blood pressure, liver or kidney function were noted compared to placebo. Jack3d™ was well tolerated with no serious adverse effects noted.

http://www.la-press.com/impact-of-a-dietary-supplement-containing-13-dimethylamylamine-on-bloo-article-a3040

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Study #6: DMAA / Caffeine 6

Authors: Richard Bloomer PhD, Innocence Harvey BS, Tyler Farney MS, Zach Bell MS, Robert Canale MS.
Affiliation: Department of Health and Sports Science. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.

In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, conducted by an independent scientist without involvement of the company, 10 healthy, exercise-trained men and women were given varying amounts of DMAA, caffeine, and DMAA/caffeine in a single serving and then had their heart rate and blood pressure evaluated. Regarding DMAA alone, a 50 mg dose resulted in no significant change in heart rate, while a small change in systolic blood pressure was noted. This change was not statistically different than the changes reported in the scientific literature for an amount of caffeine equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee. At the highest dose of DMAA tested, systolic blood pressure did increase to a statistically greater degree than that seen with caffeine (250 mg) alone. This dose is 25% greater than the maximum amount consumed under the label directions for use and warnings for Jack3d and OxyElite Pro. No serious adverse events were noted in this study.

CONCLUSION

We report for the first time that acute oral geranamine intake by healthy men and women results in a signifi cant increase in blood pressure, without impacting HR. The effect appears dose dependent, in particular for SBP, with a greater increase at 75 mg compared with 50 mg. The addition of caffeine to geranamine (at a dosage of 50 mg) increases the percent change from pre-ingestion in RPP, but does not influence other variables in a statistically signifi cant manner. The changes in HR and blood pressure cannot be explained by circulating NE and EPI. Future studies are needed to determine what, if any, change in resting HR and blood pressure may be noted with chronic ingestion of geranamine.

https://physsportsmed.org/doi/10.3810/psm.2011.09.1927

Study #7: DMAA/Caffeine 7

Authors: Richard Bloomer PhD, Cameron McCarthy MS, Tyler Farney MS, Innocence Harvey BS.
Affiliation: Department of Health and Sports Science. University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.

In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, conducted by an independent scientist without involvement of the company, 12 healthy, exercise-trained men and women were given varying amounts of DMAA, DMAA/caffeine or caffeine prior to a 10 km run. No statistically significant difference was found when comparing DMAA to placebo when evaluating average heart rate, mood or perceived exertion. Hemodynamic variables were assessed after exercise and no statistically significant difference was found when comparing the values obtained with consumption of DMAA versus caffeine. No serious adverse events were noted in this study.

CONCLUSION

We report for the first time that acute oral ingestion of caffeine and 1,3-D alone or in combination does not significantly improve exercise performance as measured by run time. Further, ingestion of either 1,3-D or caffeine alone results in the greatest increase in postexercise glycerol and FFA concentrations, whereas the combination of the two agents results in concentrations that are more similar to placebo. Neither agent has an impact on oxidative stress biomarkers, either before or after exercise. Finally, caffeine or 1,3-D alone increases SBP, without adversely impacting other hemodynamic variables. Future studies are needed using different dosages of these agents, as well as different exercise tests—possibly at a time of day more similar to subjects’ usual training time, to determine whether more favorable effects can be observed after acute intake of caffeine or 1,3-D alone and in combination.

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jcr.2011.0019?prevSearch=allfield%253A%2528dimethylamylamine%2529&searchHistoryKey=

Reference Section

  1. McCarthy CG, Farney TM, Canale RE et al. A Finished Dietary Supplement Stimulates Lipolysis and Metabolic Rate in Young Men and Women. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2012:5 23-31
  2. McCarthy CG, Canale RE, Alleman Jr. RJ et al. Biochemical and Anthropometric Effects of a Weight Loss Dietary Supplement in Healthy Men and Women. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2012:5 13-22
  3. Farney TM, McCarthy, CG, Canale RE et al. Hemodynamic and Hematologic Profile of Healthy Adults Ingesting Dietary Supplements Containing 1,3-Dimethylamylamine and Caffeine. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2012:5 1-12
  4. Farney TM, McCarthy, CG, Canale RE et al. Hemodynamic and Hematologic Profile of Healthy Adults Ingesting Dietary Supplements Containing 1,3-Dimethylamylamine and Caffeine. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2012:5 1-12
  5. Bloomer RJ, Schilling BK, Whitehead PN et al. Safety profile of a dietary supplement containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine: a 10-week intervention study. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights (In Press).
  6. Bloomer RJ, Harvey IC, Farney TM et al. Effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone or in combination on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Phys Sportsmed. 2011 Oct;39(3):111-120
  7. Bloomer RJ, McCarthy CG, Farney TM et al. Effect of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine on exercise performance and blood markers of lipolysis and oxidative stress in trained men and women. J Caffeine Res (In Press).
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