DMAA in Food

DMAA – also referred to as 1,3-dimethylamylamine or geranium extract – is a constituent of the geranium plant, found in the oil obtained from the steam distillation of the stems and leaves.

FAQ About the Ping Study

DMAA in Food

The original study by Ping et al., performed GC/MS analysis of geranium oil which they obtained after they procured fresh air-dried stems and leaves from the Rongjiang region of the Guizhou province of China, which were cut and then steam distilled until they had the oil extracted (1).

In the results section of the paper, the authors report various compounds which they believed they had identified, including DMAA as compound number 30 on the table they provide. Although the authors list the compound as, “2-hexanamide, 4-methyl”, it is obvious that they meant to refer to it as 2-hexanamine, 4-methyl” as the molecular weight and molecular formula can only fit the amine, not the amide. Of course, the most obvious indicator that they meant to refer to the amine is that they used the Chinese character for amine and not amide. Thus, it is obvious this was a translational error due to the fact that the authors were not native English speakers. The authors did the same thing with other molecules.

It was this paper which has been cited and used as the evidence that DMAA occurs in the geranium plant and thus can be used as a dietary supplement.

Thus, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a constituent of the geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plant, being identified in the oil obtained from the steam distillation of the stems and leaves (1). This plant, which contains DMAA, has been used for centuries as a food item (i.e., leaves are infused for use as a tea and are added to desserts and confections; flowers are used in salads, while the oil has been used as a flavoring agent) (2-5). In fact, the geranium plant and its oil (6,7) has the status of being generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

  1. Zang Ping, Qing Jun, Lu Qing. A study on the chemical constituents of geranium oil. Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology. 1996 Feb;25(1):82-85.
  2. Davidson A. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food 2nd Ed. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
  3. Brown D. (1995). Encylopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. London; New York: Dorling Kindersley.
  4. Facciola, S. (1990). Cornucopia: A Source Book of Edible Plants. Vista, California. Kampong Publications.
  5. Prabuseenivasan S, Javakumar M, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Nov 30;6:39
  6. United Sates Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Listing of Food Additive Status Part II. Page last updated 5/05/2010. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/ucm191033.htm
  7. United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Listing of Food Additive Status Part I. Page last updated 5/05/2010. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/FoodAdditiveListings/ucm091048.htm#ftnG
I have heard that the original Ping study is flawed and that they didn’t actually identify DMAA but the amide version. I have also heard it was probably a misidentification in the translation. Is this true?

The initial criticism of the Ping paper was that the compound isolated was an amide, although that has now been established as being incorrect. As stated above, the best indicator that they meant to refer to the amine is that they used the Chinese character for amine and not amide. Therefore, it is clear this was a translational error.

Subsequently, it was pointed out that it appears as though the authors simply ran a search on a mass spectral library for each peak in order to identify each component. Yet again, however, this criticism doesn’t have a great deal of merit as it is unclear whether the authors confirmed each compounds presence with a reference standard or not.

Finally, it has been stated that because of the elution time of DMAA in the Ping et al., paper, it must be an error considering that DMAA normally elutes early, as opposed to much later when performing GC analysis. However, those who have suggested this have failed to consider the possibility of the cross-over phenomenon, which occurs most often during analysis of essential oil (which is what geranium oil is). When this cross-over occurs, you can get complete retention time reversals and thus due to the differences in GC conditions, it alone could explain why DMAA eluted so late as opposed to early (1,2).

  1. Hively, R.A. and R.E. Hinton, J.Gas Chromatoraphy. 1968 6:203-217.
  2. Mehran M, Cooper WJ, Golkar N, et al. Elution order in gas chromatography. Journal of High Resolution Chromatography. 1991 14: 745–750.
I have seen statements that no other published scientific papers which have evaluated geranium oil have found DMAA. They say that this is evidence that DMAA does not exist in geranium oil. Is this accurate?

The are several problems with using previously published papers as evidence that DMAA does not exist in geranium oil. These papers were not seeking DMAA and were not seeking to identify any trace or ultra-trace compounds. These were simply survey studies which generally identified major components. Here is a brief summary of those issues:

  1. They do not Identify Trace Compounds and Amines

Not one of the cited papers which some claim supports the notion that DMAA isn’t present in geranium oil found any alkaloids or amines at all. This is because aside from a group of 30 regularly identified compounds in geranium, all other compounds, including amine or alkaloid type compounds appear in trace quantities which typically escape detection via GC/MS (1,2). Though, even the 30 regularly identified, “major” components are not always identified in all geranium oil varieties, demonstrating the great variability in the composition of the oil. This was noted in one paper where, isomenthone, a principle component of geranium oil, was not identified in geranium oil samples (3).

Regarding any alkaloid or amine type compounds, aside from the Ping et al., paper, there has only been one other study which has reported finding them. In fact, the concentrations were 10 ppm or lower. It is also interesting to note that while there were other amine type compounds which were unable to be identified, a compound similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA was found (2).

Perhaps most importantly, however, is the fact that not one of the cited papers identified 100% of the compounds present. In fact, not one published paper has ever identified 100% of the compounds present as the remaining 1-10% of the oil is generally comprised of many trace compounds which are difficult to identify due to their physicochemical properties and the matrix of the oil. This is especially true for GC/MS analysis (see next paragraph).

  1. Problems with using GC/MS

GC/MS analysis of geranium oil is not the most suitable method for the detection of DMAA in a geranium oil matrix, due to the complexity of the oil and the small quantities of any amines. In fact, there is only one published paper that has ever found any amine or alkaloid compounds present and this was at very low levels (2). This is corroborated by the fact that the authors of the most comprehensive text available regarding geranium oil analysis stated,

“Only 30 compounds are regularly and individually present at more than 0.3 per cent of the oil; together they represent about 90 per cent of the essential oil and are sufficient to form the basis of the essential oil quality. The other components appear as traces, the correct identification of which is sometimes difficult, especially when sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons are concerned” and “Geranium oil is a very complex product that contains hundreds of compounds, some being hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic, monoterpenic, sesquiterpenic with different skeletons), and the others being oxygenated with alcohol, phenol, oxide, aldehyde, ketone, acid, ester and ether functional groups” (1).

The difficulties of using GC/MS for geranium oil analysis has been stated in the Jalali-Heravi et al., paper where they say, “The essential oil was extracted from the leaves and stems of Iranian geranium oil. The total ion chromatogram of this oil is displayed in Fig. 1. This figure shows the complexity of the mixture by showing several overlapped peaks. The similarity indices obtained from direct searching using MS database are very low for many chromatographic peaks. Also, at different scan points of a single peak one can obtain different compounds using library searching. If these overlapped peaks could not be resolved, the traditional searching using MS database would fail. Furthermore, because of column background and residual gases, both resolution and identification, especially for components of low concentration, are impossible” (4).

Thus, the authors highlight the difficulty and complexity in geranium oil analysis, indicating that compounds present in very small quantities will present great difficulty with respect to their identification. In addition, it is known that GC-MS analysis can present problems when evaluating samples for DMAA. In fact, the authors of one analytical paper, Vorce et al., stated that, “GC–MS analysis is feasible, but great care must be taken during the method development process for the initial temperature, injection parameters, and the solvent delay”, when discussing the fact that their previous studies had failed to detect DMAA, despite the fact that they later confirmed its presence (5). Thus, the difference in GC conditions could be yet another reason why other papers fail to identify DMAA.

  1. Problems with Using the Correct Variety of Oil

The studies cited do not use geranium oil from the Rongjiang region of the Guizhou province of China. In fact, they didn’t use any geranium oil from China, which is well established to be chemically unique from the two other major types of geranium oil. The original Ping et al., paper which found 1,3-DMAA in geranium oil utilized oil that was produced from geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) obtained from the Rongjiang Region of the Guizhou Province in China (6). This is of particular importance because geranium oil composition is well established to vary significantly depending on the geographical location and various environmental variables (3, 7-11). In fact, there are only three true, “types” of geranium oil and these are the Chinese, African and the Bourbon (1).

The variability in the composition of the oil is so great that even within the same country it has been shown that the composition of the geranium oil can vary greatly. For example, when Jain et al., evaluated geranium oil from the northern and southern Indian hills, the oil derived from plants grown in the northern Indian plains had detectable amounts of heptan-2-one, heptan-2-ol, β-pinene, 1-8-cineole, photocitral-A, terpenen-4-ol, menthol, linalyl propionate, α-yalangene, citronellyl propionate, α-cadinene, (E)-β-farnesene, allo-aromadendrene, α-muurolene, geranyl-iso-butyrate, γ-elemene, citronellyl butyrate, γ-cadinene, δ-cadinene, (E)-nerolidol, citronellyl valerate, T-cadinol, α-cadinol, geranyl hexanoate, geranyl heptanoate, and geranyl octanoate, while the oil derived from plants grown in the southern Indian hills did not. Conversely, the oil derived from the plants grown in the southern Indian hills had detectable levels of camphene, terpinolene and α-cubebene, while the oil derived from plants grown in the northern Indian plains did not (10). Obviously such a level of variation within the same variety of plant species, even when grown within the same country, demonstrates this continuing theme throughout all published papers focusing on the chemical composition of geranium essential oil.

Jain et al., explain these data by stating, “Significant work on geranium essential oil has been carried out in different parts of India and it was found that chemical composition is influenced by location, drying of biomass prior to distillation, age of the leaves, method of distillation, application of growth regulators, storage of oil, presence of weed, wilt desease, and the effect of the semi-arid tropical climate.”

Processing methods can also influence the composition of the oil. For example, the Babu and Kaul study, using a “water distillation”, of the geranium plants to obtain the geranium oil, the compounds β-caryophyllene, citronellyl acetate, sabinene, limonene, p-cymene, geranyl-n-propionate, guaia-6,9-diene and geranial were not detected, while, on the other hand, the use of “water-steam distillation”, did allow for these compounds to be detected (12).

In addition, unlike the Ping et al., study which simply used steam distillation, the oil in the Kulkarni et al., study, was derived via hydro-distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, which, as was shown in the Babu & Kaul study, can create divergent chemical compositions of the oil as compared to steam distillation. For example, utilizing this technique, the compounds sabinene and α-terpineol were not able to be detected in the resultant oil, while these compounds were in fact able to be detected when using steam distillation (12).

Furthermore, Gomes et al., lends further evidence that processing methods can greatly influence the chemical composition when they note the fact that using an oven to dry the leaves, versus natural air-drying can greatly reduce the amount of virtually all compounds, including isomenthone by more than 80% due to the lower volatility of the compounds (DMAA is volatile). Specifically, they state, “Drying the leaves in an oven prior to extraction resulted in an oil that was poorer in all the considered compounds except for geranyl and 2-phenylethyl tiglates, the less volatile compounds. In fact, the contents of isomenthone decreased more than 80%, while the concentration of the tiglates doubled. On the other hand, the air-dried geranium oil was found to contain the highest content of linalool and geraniol, having though approximately the same amount of citronellol and esters as using fresh geranium leaves” (13).

Thus, it is critical that any investigation replicate the Ping et al., paper by at the very least, using geranium oil from China, although, obtaining several samples from the same region, produced in a manner which is similar to what Ping et al. did is ideal. They must then use fresh (not aged), air-dried (not oven) stems and leaves (not the flower) and utilize steam distillation (not hydro-distillation or other methods) to obtain the oil.

  1. The Inherent Variability in the Chemical Composition of  all Geranium Oil as Influenced by many Variables

The variability of geranium oil in general is too great for one to point to any particular studies to conclude that a given compound isn’t present.

In fact, this occurs in the Babu and Kaul study, with the authors noting that, “Some of the chemical constituents, viz. trans-2-hexenal, α-terpinene, terpinolene, α-ylangene, α-copaene, etc., which have been reported previously, could not be detected under these experimental conditions”.

And again, Jain et al., noted this, stating, “Significant work on geranium essential oil has been carried out in different parts of India and it was found that chemical composition is influenced by location, drying of biomass prior to distillation, age of the leaves, method of distillation, application of growth regulators, storage of oil, presence of weed, wilt desease, and the effect of the semi-arid tropical climate.” More importantly, the study itself yet again demonstrates this principle even when using the same variety of the species. For example, the authors’ data show that the oil derived from plants grown in the northern Indian plains had detectable amounts of heptan-2-one, heptan-2-ol, β-pinene, 1-8-cineole, photocitral-A, terpenen-4-ol, menthol, linalyl propionate, α-yalangene, citronellyl propionate, α-cadinene, (E)-β-farnesene, allo-aromadendrene, α-muurolene, geranyl-iso-butyrate, γ-elemene, citronellyl butyrate, γ-cadinene, δ-cadinene, (E)-nerolidol, citronellyl valerate, T-cadinol, α-cadinol, geranyl hexanoate, geranyl heptanoate, and geranyl octanoate, while the oil derived from plants grown in the southern Indian hills did not. Conversely, the oil derived from the plants grown in the southern Indian hills had detectable levels of camphene, terpinolene and α-cubebene, while the oil derived from plants grown in the northern Indian plains did not. Obviously such a level of variation even within the same variety of plant species, even when grown within the same country, demonstrates this continuing theme throughout all published papers focusing on the chemical composition of geranium essential oil.

In the Jalali-Heravi et al., paper the authors make this note, “However, a characteristic feature of the Iranian geranium oil is the absence of 10-epi-γ-eudesmol in its constituents compared with the oil from northern and southern parts of India”.

Lalli et al., again confirms this notion when they reported the following, “Pelargonium graveolens oil obtained from plants growing in the Himalayan region of Uttaranchal contained citronellol (33.6%) and geraniol (26.8%) as the principal components. Other major compounds included linalool (10.4%), menthone (6.0%), citronellyl formate (6.9%), α-humulene (6.1%) and α-selinene (6.6%). In this study, the P. graveolens oil samples from SBG and WSBG produced very low levels of citronellol (0.4%), citronellyl formate (< 0.05%) and linalool (0.3%). Furthermore, geraniol, α-humulene and α-selinene were not present. Isomenthone, the principle compound in the P. graveolens (SBG and WSBG) oil samples, was not detected in the P. graveolens oil analyzed by Rana et al. Growth regulators, shading, distillation, storage, weeds, leaf ontogeny, drying and seasons all influence the chemical composition of Pelargonium species oil. Hence, such appreciable differences in chemical characters noted between the present data and published data may be attributed to the different environmental parameters associated with the different localities from where the plants were harvested.”

Finally, one can also note the extreme variability by cross-referencing all published papers and noting the number of compounds that appear in one paper, but are not reported elsewhere. We found that the compounds, ledol, veridiflorol, epizonarene, photonerol and leoidosene were all identified in the Jalali-Heravi et al., paper, while they were not identified in any other papers available (1-11).

  1. Prakasa Rao EVS, Ganesha  Rao RS and Ramesh S. Seasonal variation in oil content and its composition  in two chemotypes of scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) J Essent Oil Res.1995;7(2):159-163
  2. Verma RS, Verma RK, Yadav AK, et al. Changes in the essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’ Herit. Ex. Ait.) due to date of transplanting under hill conditions of Uttarakhand. Ind J Nat Prod Res. 2010 Sep;1(3):367-370
  3. Jain N, Aggarwal KK, Syamasundar KV, et al. Essential oil composition of geranium (Pelargonium sp.) from the plains of Northern India. Flavour Fragr J. 2001;16:44-46
  4. Fayed SA. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Citrus reticulate (Petitgrain Mandarin) and Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) essential oils. Res J Agric & Bio Sciences 2009;5(5):740-747
  5. Shellie RA & Marriott PJ. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Pelargonium graveolens essential oil using rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry. Analyst, 2003, 128, 879–883
  6. Lalli JYY, Viljoen AM, Baser KHC, et al. The essential oil composition and chemotaxonomical appraisal of South African Pelargoniums (Geraniaceae). J Essent Oil Res. Special Edition. 2006 18: 89-105
  7. Babu K.G.D., Kaul V.K. Variation in essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) distilled by different distillation techniques. 2005 Flavour Fragr J. 2005;20:222-231
  8. Jalali-Heravi M., Zekavat B., Sereshti H. Characterization of essential oil components of Iranian geranium oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometric resolution techniques. J Chromatography A. 20061114: 154-163.
  9. Peterson A., Machmudah S., Roy B.C., et al. Extraction of essential oil from geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) with supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol 2006. 81: 167-172.
  10. Kulkarni RN, Mallavarapu GR, Baskaran K, et al. Composition of the essential oils of two isomenthone-rich varients of gernaum (Pelarogonum sp.). Flavour Fragr J. 1998;13:389-392
  11. Gomes PB, Mata VG and Rodrigues AE. Characterization of Portugese-grown geranium oil (Pelargonium sp.). J Essent Oil Res. 2004;16:490-495

 

  1. Demarne FE. ‘Rose-scented geranium’ a Pelargonium grown for the perfume industry. Geranium and Pelargonium. History of Nomenclature, Usage and Cultivation. CRC Press 2002. P. 193-211
  2. Vernin GA, Chakib S, Vernin GMF, et al. Geranium (Pelargonium sp.) Essential Oil from Reunion. Minor Compounds: Acids, Phenols, Pyridines. J Essent Oil Res. 2004 16:26-28
  3.  Lalli JYY, Viljoen AM, Baser KHC, et al. The essential oil composition and chemotaxonomical appraisal of South African Pelargoniums (Geraniaceae). J Essent Oil Res. Special Edition. 2006 18: 89-105
  4. Jalali-Heravi M., Zekavat B., Sereshti H. Characterization of essential oil components of Iranian geranium oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometric resolution techniques. J Chromatography A. 20061114: 154-163.
  5. Vorce SP, Holler JM, Cawrse BM , et al. Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol. 2011 Apr;35(3):183-187
  6. Zang Ping, Qing Jun, Lu Qing. A study on the chemical constituents of geranium oil. Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology. 1996 Feb;25(1):82-85.
  7. Prakasa Rao EVS, Ganesha Rao RS and Ramesh S. Seasonal variation in oil content and its composition in two chemotypes of scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) J Essent Oil Res. 1995;7(2):159-163
  8. Rao BRR. Cultivation and distillation of geranium oil from Pelargonium species in India. Geranium and Pelargonium. History of Nomenclature, Usage and Cultivation. CRC Press 2002. P. 212-217
  9. Verma RS, Verma RK, Yadav AK, et al. Changes in the essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’ Herit. Ex. Ait.) due to date of transplanting under hill conditions of Uttarakhand. Ind J Nat Prod Res. 2010 Sep;1(3):367-370
  10. Jain N, Aggarwal KK, Syamasundar KV, et al. Essential oil composition of geranium (Pelargonium sp.) from the plains of Northern India. Flavour Fragr J. 2001;16:44-46
  11. Kulkarni RN, Mallavarapu GR, Baskaran K, et al. Composition of the essential oils of two isomenthone-rich varients of gernaum (Pelarogonum sp.). Flavour Fragr J. 1998;13:389-392
  12. Babu KGD & Kaul VK. Variation in essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) distilled by different distillation techniques. Flavour Fragr J. 2005;20:222-231
  13. Gomes PB, Mata VG and Rodrigues AE. Characterization of Portugese-grown geranium oil (Pelargonium sp.). J Essent Oil Res. 2004;16:490-495
The Lisi et al., paper found there was no DMAA in geranium oil. Is this proof that DMAA doesn’t exist in the plant or the oil?

No, in fact, there were several critical flaws of the paper which are listed below:

Key Points of Criticism from Lisi et al., paper.

  • Not one of the geranium oils used for the study was from China. The original Ping et al., paper which found 1,3-DMAA in geranium oil utilized oil that was produced from geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) obtained from the Rongjiang Region of the Guizhou Province in China (1). This is of particular importance because geranium oil composition is well established to vary significantly depending on the geographical location and various environmental variables (2-7). In fact, there are only three true, “types” of geranium oil and these are the Chinese, African and the Bourbon (8). Considering that the oils used in the Lisi et al., paper were from Egypt (African type) and France (Bourbon type), there was no sample of Chinese geranium oil used. Furthermore, it is also strange that one would not select geranium oils from China considering that China is by far, the largest producer of geranium oil in the world with the vast majority of cultivation of the plant taking place in the Yunnan province (8).
  • No limit of detection or limit of quantitation given. How is one supposed to know how sensitive the method was? It is well established that outside of a group of 30 regularly identified compounds in geranium, all other compounds, including amine or alkaloid type compounds appear in trace quantities (8,9). Thus, having a sufficient LOD is crucial.
  • Contrary to the author’s opinions, GC/MS is not the most suitable of instrumentation for determination and quantitation of trace quantities of DMAA in a complex matrix such as geranium oil. This has in fact, been noted in two separate papers (10,11), while it has also been noted that the correct identification of the compounds outside of the 30 regularly identified components of geranium oil is difficult, if not impossible, in part because of the trace quantities but also because of the complexity of the oil matrix (8,11).
  • Contrary to the author’s opinion that the Shellie and Marriott paper would have found DMAA if it were present, the oil used for that study was not from China, and Shellie and Marriott did not identify 100% of the compounds present (12). Furthermore, using the logic that because it wasn’t found, the compound must not be present, we note that while the Shellie and Marriott paper did not identify the compounds, ledol, veridiflorol, epizonarene, photonerol and leoidosene, a study by Jalali-Heravi et al., did in fact identify these compounds in geranium oil (11). Thus, using the logic of Lisi et al., the identification of these compounds by Jalali-Heravi must not have occurred since Shellie and Marriott did not detect them. Of course, a more reasonable explanation is that the oil composition varies considerably depending upon origin and environmental factors; in addition, it should be obvious that when a study fails to identify 100% of the compounds present, one simply can not simply assume that a given compound, particularly a trace compound, is not present. To make such a definitive ruling would require identification of all compounds present.
  • In addition, while the authors cite the Shellie and Marriott paper as evidence that DMAA does not exist, we further point out that they identified 10-epi-γ-eudsemol, a compound that is not found in Chinese geranium oil (8), yet again demonstrating the use of incorrect oil if one is attempting to draw parallels between two pieces of research.
  • In addition to the Shellie and Marriott paper, we noted that no other papers readily identify any alkaloid or amine type compounds. This is because these compounds are present in trace quantities (i.e., at most the very low ppm level). In fact, in one of the rare papers to identify alkaloid or amine type compounds, the concentrations were 10 ppm or lower. It is also interesting to note that while there were other amine type compounds which went unidentified, a compound similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA was found (9).
  • Spiked Concentration for DMAA in geranium oil was 100 ppm. This is far too high and is indicative of the fact that the methodology used here does not possess the sensitivity needed to detect DMAA in trace quantities (i.e., ppb range).
  • No spiked recovery data are given. If recovery isn’t known, how is one going to know if their method for determining the amount of DMAA that might actually be present in the oil is suitable?

References

  1. Zang Ping, Qing Jun, Lu Qing. A study on the chemical constituents of geranium oil. Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology. 1996 Feb;25(1):82-85
  2. Rao & Rao. Seasonal variation in oil content and its composition in two chemotypes of scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.). Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1995 7:159-163
  3. Rao BRR. Cultivation and distillation of geranium oil from Pelargonium species in India. Geranium and Pelargonium. History of Nomenclature, Usage and Cultivation. CRC Press 2002. P. 212-217
  4. Verma RS, Verma RK, Yadav AK, et al. Changes in the essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’ Herit. Ex. Ait.) due to date of transplanting under hill conditions of Uttarakhand. Ind J Nat Prod Res. 2010 Sep;1(3):367-370
  5. Jain N, Aggarwal KK, Syamasundar KV, et al. Essential oil composition of geranium (Pelargonium sp.) from the plains of Northern India. Flavour Fragr J. 2001;16:44-46
  6. Lalli JYY, Viljoen AM, Baser KHC, et al. The essential oil composition and chemotaxonomical appraisal of South African Pelargoniums (Geraniaceae). J Essent Oil Res. Special Edition. 2006 18: 89-105
  7. Kulkarni RN, Mallavarapu GR, Baskaran K, et al. Composition of the essential oils of two isomenthone-rich varients of gernaum (Pelarogonum sp.). Flavour Fragr J. 1998;13:389-392
  8. Demarne FE. ‘Rose-scented geranium’ a Pelargonium grown for the perfume industry. Geranium and Pelargonium. History of Nomenclature, Usage and Cultivation. CRC Press 2002. P. 193-211
  9. Vernin GA, Chakib S, Vernin GMF, et al. Geranium (Pelargonium sp.) Essential Oil from Reunion. Minor Compounds: Acids, Phenols, Pyridines. J Essent Oil Res. 2004 16:26-28
  10. Vorce SP, Holler JM, Cawrse BM , et al. Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines. J Anal Toxicol. 2011 Apr;35(3):183-187
  11. Jalali-Heravi M., Zekavat B., Sereshti H. Characterization of essential oil components of Iranian geranium oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometric resolution techniques. J Chromatography A. 2006 1114: 154-163.
  12. Shellie RA & Marriott PJ. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Pelargonium graveolens essential oil using rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry. Analyst, 2003, 128, 879–883
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